~ By Duncan Haughey
Project management in the modern sense began in the early 1950s, driven by businesses that realised the benefits of organising work around projects, and the critical need to communicate and co-ordinate work across departments and professions.
Project management is no small task. It has a definite beginning and end and is not a continuous process. Project management uses tools to measure progress and track project tasks. Projects need ad-hoc resources, as opposed to businesses that have dedicated full-time positions ongoing.
Project management methodologies consist of four to five process groups, and a control system. Regardless of the method or terminology, project management uses the same fundamental processes. Process groups typically include:
All projects start with an idea for a product, service, or another desirable outcome. The initiating process group determines the nature and scope of the project. Not performing this stage well means, it is unlikely the project will be successful in meeting the businesses needs. The key project controls required, are an understanding of the business environment and incorporating all necessary checks into the project. Report any deficiencies and make a recommendation to fix them.
The first project document is the project charter, which includes:
The charter answers the fundamental question, "What are we trying to do?"
After initiating, the project is planned to an appropriate level of detail. The main purpose is to plan time, cost and resources adequately to estimate the work needed and to manage risk effectively during project execution. All of this information is recorded in the project management plan. As with the initiating process group, a failure to plan adequately lessens the project's chances of success.
Project planning includes:
This information forms the project contract, used to gain formal approval to begin work.
Executing consists of the processes used to complete the work defined in the project management plan, to accomplish the project's objectives. The executing process involves co-ordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and performing the activities of the project. The deliverables are produced as outputs from the processes performed as defined in the project management plan.
The monitoring process group involves managing and tracking the project so that potential problems can be identified quickly and corrective action taken. The project management plan is used for this purpose. Monitoring includes:
The monitoring process group ends once the project has achieved its goals and objectives as detailed in the project contract. A project may be stopped before completion for many reasons, including changes in the business, lack of resources or higher priorities.
Project closing is an important part of project management, sometimes overlooked.
Closing a project means finishing all activities across all process groups, disbanding the project team, and signing off the project with the customer.
At this point, it is important to know how well the project has performed. This task is done using the project closure report. It communicates how well the project has performed against its original business case, quality measures, cost, duration and tolerances.
Rather than leave valuable project experiences locked in people's heads, it's a good idea to complete and publish a lessons learned report. This report passes on valuable lessons future projects can apply.
Project control is the part of a project that keeps it on track, on-time and within budget. Project control begins early in the project with planning and ends late in the project with a post-implementation review.
Projects should be assessed for the right level of control needed: too much control is time-consuming, too little control is risky.
Typical elements of project control are:
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