ORGANISATIONAL ANNUAL HEALTH CHECK
For any Organisation to function at peak performance it is essential that an Annual Organisational Health Check is carried out. This Annual Health Check should identify the Organisation’s strengths, weaknesses and talents. It should also determine what sort of organisation it wants to be, what it wants to be recognised in the market place for and how it plans to achieve this.
The adage "IF WE ALWAYS DO WHAT WE ALWAYS DID, WE WILL ALWAYS HAVE WHAT WE ALWAYS HAD" is extremely pertinent to future business development. For businesses to thrive in a highly competitive and demanding market. It is essential that they embrace change and overcome their weaknesses, build on their strengths and have a clear path to realistic and achievable goals.
This theory is supported by Business Trend Analysis, which purports that if a business trend over time (say three accounting periods) is flat, ascending or descending then unless something is done to change that trend, that trend will continue for the next period.
Ideally this Business Health Check should be carried out as soon as the annual business accounts are published and with a sober mind. Crisis management is bad management and knee jerk reactions do not solve long-term business problems.
ORGANISATIONAL ANNUAL HEALTH CHECK
Defines the purpose of the organisation, where it is going and guiding principles of how it is going to get there.
Expresses the basic beliefs on the behaviour of the organisation and on what the organisation believes to be important. Can cover, care of customers, concern for people (Handy Care culture) Competitiveness, enterprise, excellence, flexibility, growth as a major objective, innovation, market/customer orientation, productivity, quality, teamwork.
HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING:
The systematic and continuing process of analysing an organisations human resource needs under changing conditions and developing personnel policies appropriate to longer-term effectiveness of the organisation. Obtains and retains the quality of people it needs, makes the best use of its human recourses, is able to anticipate the problems of potential surpluses and deficits of people, can developed a well trained and flexible workforce, thus contributing to the organisations ability to adapt to uncertain and changing environments.
AIMS OF HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING:
Obtain and retain the quantity and quality of people it needs. Make best use of human recourses. Anticipate the problems of potential surplices and deficits of people. Developed a well-trained and flexible workforce contributing to the organisations ability to adapt to uncertain and changing environment reducing the dependence on external recruitment.
DEMAND FORCAST METHODS:
1. Managerial judgments
2. Ratio-trend analysis studies past employment trends
3. Work study techniques matches employment needs to production output requirements, Modelling
TEAM WORK: (WICKENS)
Is not dependent on people working in groups but everyone working towards the same objectives.
PRINCIPLES OF TEAM WORK:
Promote mutual trust between company and employees/union. Recognise that every employee has a valued part to play in the success of the company, seek actively the contribution of all employees in furthering the goals.
TEAM INTERACTIVE SKILLS DEVELOPMENT:
To increase awareness of the social processes that take place within workgroups. Develop the interactive or interpersonal skills, which enable individuals to function as team members. Increase the overall effectiveness with which groups operate in the organisation.
INTERPERSONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAME:
Should be relevant to the responsibilities of the participants. Be seen as relevant by participants, their managers, subordinates and colleagues. Support business objectives. Fit in with practical working arrangements. Reflects the values of the organisation wishes to promote.
TEAM BUILDING AREAS COVERED:
1. Listening skills,
2. Understanding user needs,
3. Appreciating colleague contributions.
4. Developing team rewards for supportive behaviour.
5. Developing collective problem solving skills.
6. Building up a store of personal goodwill to overcome problems.
7. Developing team confidence and competence.
8. Recognition of personal strengths and weaknesses both technical and personal.
COMUNICATION AND INVOLVEMENT:
Increases involvement by:
1. Joint consultation.
2. Quality circles or improvement groups.
3. Briefing groups.
4. Better use of media such as company magazines.
Blake/Shepart/Mouton. Basic assumptions are:
1. Conflict is inevitable: agreement is impossible.
2. Conflict is not inevitable, yet agreement is not possible.
3. Although there is conflict, agreement is possible.
Set demanding goals.
· Provide feedback on performance.
· Create expectations that certain behaviours and outputs will produce worthwhile rewards.
· Design jobs which enable people to feel a since of accomplishment, to use their abilities and to exercise their own decision-making abilities.
· Provide appropriate financial rewards for achievements.
· Provide non-financial rewards, such as praise and recognition for work well done.
· Communicate the links between performance and reward.
· Appoint managers and team leaders who will be able to motivate, and provide them with training in leadership skills as necessary.
· Give people the training and guidance which will help them use their abilities to the full.
· Help people to understand what they have to do to satisfy their career aspirations.
PARTISIPATION AND JOINT CONSULTATION:
Takes place when management and employees are jointly involved in making decisions on matters of mutual interest where the aim is to produce solutions to problems which will benefit all concerned.
LEVELS OF PARTISIPATION:
1. Job level.
2. Management level.
3. Policy level.
4. Ownership level.
1. Define, discuss and agree objectives.
2. Relate objectives to job. Management and Unions seen to believe in principle of participation.
3. Must consist of existing communication system, not instead of it.
4. Joint consultative committees to discuss specific items.
5. Employee and management committee member should be fully briefed and trained to do the job.
6. Managers and supervisors should be kept informed.
7. Consultation should take place before decisions are made.
AREAS COVERED BY PARTISIPATION:
1. Quality circles.
2. Cost reduction.
3. Production processes.
4. Productivity improvements.
5. Waste prevention.
7. Service processes.
9. Other aspects of daily work.
Is the process of collecting, analysing and setting out of the following information?
Why the job exists, in essence, what the jobholder is expected to do.
The nature and scope of the job in terms of the tasks and operations to be performed and duties to be carried out.
The results or outputs for which the job is accountable.
The criteria, measures or indicators, which enable an assessment to be carried out to ascertain the degree to which the job is being performed satisfactorily.
The knowledge, skills, abilities and personal qualities (inputs) required achieving an effective level of performance in the job. The degree to which the job involves multiskilling.
The level of responsibilities the job holder has to exercise by reference to the scope and input of the job; the amount of discretion allowed to make decisions; the difficulty; scale; variety and complexity of the problems to be solved; and the type and importance of interpersonal relations.
The reporting relationships of the job holder, i.e. to whom he or she reports either directly or functionally; the people reporting either directly or indirectly to the job holder. The extent that the jobholder is involved in teamwork.
The particular features of the job that is likely to motivate or de-motivate jobholders.
Promotion and career prospects and the opportunity to acquire new skills or expertise.
Working conditions, health and safety considerations, unsocial hours, mobility, ergonomic factors relating to job design and use of equipment.
JOB ANALYSIS TECHNEQUES:
Interviews, observations, self-descriptions, questionnaires, check-lists and inventories, diaries and logs, critical incident technique, repertory grid techniques, hierarchical task analysis.
Used as the basis for devising training programmes.
1. Job breakdown.
2. Manual skills analysis.
3. Task analysis.
5. Job learning analysis.
JOB COMPETANCE ANALYSIS:
1. What is the job holder expected to accomplish overall.
2. What are the actual objectives the jobholder has to achieve?
3. What are the positive and negative indicators of behaviour, which are conductive or non-conductive to achieving objectives? E.g.
a. Personal drive.
c. Ability to communicate.
d. Team management.
e. Interpersonal skills.
f. Analytical power.
g. Ability to innovate (creative thinking).
h. Strategic thinking.
i. Commercial judgment.
j. Ability to adapt and cope with change and pressure.
Can you illustrate any of these with specific instances? What type of experience and how much of it is required to achieve a reasonable level of competence. What type of education and training and level of qualifications are required to meet objectives.
Defined by Davis, The specification of the contents, methods, and relationships of jobs in order to satisfy technological and organisational as well as social and personal requirements of the organisation and jobholder.
Analysis of work to be done, tasks to be carried out, skills needed, responsibilities, specialist knowledge. Etc. Factors affecting job design, Technology, environment, process of motivation, characteristics of task structures, group activities.
APPROACHES TO JOB DESIGN BY ROBERTSON:
1. To influence skill variety: a. provides opportunities for people to do several tasks. b. Combine tasks.
2. To influence task identity: a, combine tasks. B, form natural work units.
3. To influence task significance: a, form natural work units. B, inform people of the importance of the work.
4. To influence autonomy: Give people responsibility for determining their own work systems.
5. To influence feedback:
a. Establish good relationships.
b. Open feedback channels.
4 JOB DIMENSIONS BY COOPER:
4. Goal characteristics.
TECHNIQUES OF JOB DESIGN:
Job rotation, job enrichment, Autonomous work groups, and high performance work design.
Must set out questions relating to requirements for initial screening and quality of employees required to satisfy the manpower needs of the company.
Roger's seven-point plan.
1. Physical make-up - Health, physique, appearance, bearing and speech.
2. Attainments - education, qualifications, experience.
3. General intelligence - fundamental intellectual; capacity.
4. Special aptitudes - mechanical, manual, dexterity, facility in the use of words and figures.
5. Interest - intellectual, practical, constructional, physically active, social, and artistic.
6. Disposition - acceptability, influence over others, steadiness, dependability, self-reliance.
7. Circumstances - Domestic circumstances, occupations of family.
MUNRO-FRAZER FIVE FOLD GRADING SYSTEM:
1. Impact on others - Physical makeup, appearance, speech and manner.
2. Acquired qualifications - education, vocational training. work experience.
3. Innate abilities - natural quickness for comprehension and aptitude for learning.
4. Motivation - The kinds of goals set by the individual, his or her consistency and determination in following them.
5. Adjustment - emotional stability, ability to stand up to stress and ability to get on with people.
ANALYSIS OF RECRUITMENT STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES:
Covers National and local reputation, pay, fringe benefits, working conditions, intrinsic interest of the job, security of employment, opportunities for education and training, career prospects, location of offices and plant. Compared with opposition, industrial and national average.
SOURCES OF CANDIDATES:
Internally by a search (trawl) of company records, internal advertisements. Externally by advertisements, employment agents private or government, education and training establishments, other external sources such as unsolicited letters, casual callers, and recommendations from employees.
Must attract attention, Create and maintain interest, Stimulate action. The company must, Analyse the requirement, Decide who does what, Write the copy, Design the advertisement, Plan the media, Evaluate the response.
Should be experienced in handling recruitment, See examples of work, check other clients for level of work, and meet the staff that will work on the advertisement, check the structure, and discuss methods of working.
Compelling headline, then information on the, company, job, person required, benefits required and provided, location, and the action to be taken.
Check fees, reputation, special expertise, and quality of work.
BRIEF THEM ON:
Terms of reference, job definition, company requirements, proposed programme of advertisements, fees and expenses, method of dealing directly with consultant.
RECRUITMENT CONTROL SHEET:
Used to record the number of candidates in order to ensure that all procedures have been carried out.
Are required as a means of setting out the information on a candidate in standardized format, forms the basis for both the interview and subsequent actions in offering an appointment.
Recruitment specification, e.g. qualifications, training, experience, age, location.
In to possible, marginal, unsuitable.
Depends on the procedures being used, may be individual interviews, a panel, a board or some form of group selection procedure.
PATTERN OF INTERVIEW:
Candidate should be told where and when to attend the interview, provided with location instructions E.g. a map, Security or receptionist should be informed, applicants should have somewhere quiet to wait with reading material, Interviewers should be well briefed on the programme, comfortable room provided for the interview, time allowed for the interview and questions from the candidate, candidates should be told the next steps in the procedures, follow up studies of successful candidate on the job for future recruitment programmes.
The purpose of the test is to provide an objective means of measuring the abilities and caricature of the candidate. They must be a sensitive measuring instrument, which discriminates well between subjects, standardised, reliable and valid.
Candidates should be welcomed by a responsible person, provided with basic information about the company (an employee hand book), covering:
1. Brief description of the company - its history, products, organisation and management.
2. Basic conditions of employment, hours of work, holidays, pension scheme.
3. Pay- pay scale, when paid, deductions, queries.
4. sickness - notificationof absence, certificates, pay.
5. Leave of absence.
6. Work rules.
7. Disciplinary procedures.
8. Grievance procedures.
9. Promotion procedures.
10. Union and joint consultation arrangements.
11. Education and training facilities.
12. Health and safety arrangements.
13. Medical and first aid facilities.
14. Social and welfare arrangements.
15. Telephone calls and correspondence.
16. Travel and subsistence expenses.
Should start with the departmental manager who should give a warm welcome and a brief description of the departments work. The supervisor should with the support of the manager:
1. Put the new employee at ease.
2. Interest the employee in the job and the company.
3. Provide basic information about working arrangements.
4. Indicate the standards of performance and behaviour expected from the employee.
5. tell the employee about training arrangements and how he or she can get on with the company.
Is essential to monitor the progress and needs of the employee, to ensure they have settled in, identify any problems, provide information on recruitment strengths and weaknesses for future reference.
1. The emboldened headings form the bases for recommended policy documents.
2. The emboldened headings can also be used as task headings in an Organisational Health Check project.
3. Various authors have been noted in brackets for recognition of their published work and therefore contribution to this document.
4. Users wishing to broaden their knowledge on any of the subjects outlined above may obtain the relevant books from any reputable bookshop.
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