Project Smart ~ Exploring trends and developments in project management today

Calendar iconNot recorded
Adobe PDF icon

Avoid the Same Old Mistakes by Focussing on Lessons Learned

~ By Duncan Haughey

Yellow footsteps on a path walking towards the words lessons learned

It's said there are no new project management sins, just old ones repeated. It's also said that we don't learn the lessons from past projects, and this must be true, otherwise why would we keep making the same old mistakes.

In his article, "Lessons Learned: Why Don't we Learn From Them?" Derry Simmel, a board member of PMI's PMO SIG, identifies two common problems preventing us learning valuable lessons from past projects:

  1. We think the lessons don't apply to us
  2. We want to get things done

The sad truth is that these lessons learned are useful. That time spent in doing the work better is time well spent. That getting it right the first time is cheaper and easier than doing it now and fixing it later, Derry says.

So if we accept that lessons from past projects are indeed useful and can prevent problems later down the line; how can organisations create a lessons learned culture where people not only take the trouble to learn from past projects but want to learn. A culture where we apply best practices and discard bad ones.


For new initiatives to succeed, it's usually best to take a top-down approach. The organisation's senior leadership need to foster and support a lessons learned culture. This strategy is likely to be more fruitful and sustainable than a bottom-up approach, although this could have limited success if project managers promote it actively themselves.

Given top level support, enough time and buy-in from project managers, lessons learned will become part of the organisation's culture and part of its continuous improvement process.

Process for Capturing Lessons Learned

If project managers are going to contribute actively to the project management knowledge within an organisation and make use of it, then we have to make it easy for them. Nobody is going to go out of their way to do it. So it's important to have a well-defined and straightforward process for collecting, collating, analysing and disseminating lessons learned. It could be along the lines of discover - recommend - document - share - review - store - retrieve.

1. Discover

Project teams should learn to identify lessons during projects and record them for inclusion in a lessons learned report at the end of the project. This activity might be done as part of their regular team meetings.

A sign that a project may be having a lessons learned moment is when the resources or customers are unhappy and discussing problems between themselves outside team and other project meetings. Lessons may also crop up during a project when team members identify areas for improvement.

Arrange regular brainstorming sessions with the project team, with an independent facilitator, to unearth valuable lessons. Don't leave it until the end of the project when memories have faded.

Discover lessons by asking these three questions:

  1. What went right?
  2. What went wrong?
  3. What could have been better?

Use the facilitator to document the lessons, keep the meeting focussed on the central issues, and steer the discussion in the right direction.

2. Recommend

Project managers and their teams should make recommendations. What would they do if they could go back and start over again?

This activity needs a degree of honesty that some team members may find uncomfortable. The feedback needs to be constructive and avoid getting personal. We are not looking to play the blame game here; we need to understand how things could be done better in the future.

For this to work, the organisation's leadership needs to reward this honesty and demonstrate it will not have an adverse impact on individual careers.

3. Document and Share

It is important to record and share findings. The best way to do this is by creating a lessons learned report template and a repository with proper meta-data to help with identification. This repository should be kept updated with lessons from the most recent projects to take account of the current working environment, structures and constraints.

Standard format reports and meta-data will make it easier when reviewing multiple documents and searching the repository using keywords and phrases.

4. Review

It is the job of the Project Management Office (PMO) to review lessons learned reports and pull out issues that arise multiple times. Recurring issues can be surfaced and presented in a read this first list of lessons.

The PMO must look at what makes projects succeed and what makes them fail, and give recommendations that sit alongside those of the project teams.

5. Store

Lessons learned must be stored in a central repository with general access. Create a system for storage and retrieval of lessons. Online systems are ideal for this, giving easy access to the lessons. Most organisations have an Intranet that can be used for this purpose.

6. Retrieve

Retrieving lessons learned on a regular basis must be part of the organisation's culture. Project managers should be expected to retrieve and review lessons before commencing a project. They should have this as part of their annual performance objectives and be able to demonstrate they have retrieved, reviewed and applied lessons wherever applicable.


Creation of a successful lessons learned culture needs leadership support as well as time and buy-in from project managers. Implementation of a simple process of collecting, collating, analysing and disseminating lessons learned is essential if it's to be adopted.

Once lessons have been captured, they need to be made available to all project teams to help them avoid repeating problems of the past. It is important that these teams understand what past projects have to tell them and act upon that information.

History has a strange way of repeating itself. If we don't take the time to learn the lessons of the past, and moreover act upon them, we will continue to commit the same project management sins again and again. And don't think it won't happen to you, it will.

Remember, in the words of Derry Simmel, …time spent in doing the work better is time well spent.

Enjoyed this article? Now read Lessons Learned: It's Déjà Vu All Over Again

Comments (2)

Topic: Avoid the Same Old Mistakes by Focussing on Lessons Learned
4/5 (3)
Full StarFull StarFull StarFull StarEmpty Star
22nd July 2018 5:25pm
Arun (Warminster) says...
As a project manager, I am inspired by the article to institutionalize lessons learned sessions within our organization. The process can help organizations to change the work culture and also drive continuous improvements in business processes.
Full StarFull StarFull StarFull StarFull Star
18th June 2014 3:08pm
Wahab Sidik (Lilongwe) says...
As a project manager, I am inspired by the article to institutionalise lessons learned sessions within our organisation, but also to advocate for partner organisations to do the same.

Add a comment

(never displayed)

What is the sum of 1 + 3 + 3?
Notify me of new comments via email.
Remember my form inputs on this computer.

Building a Business Case for Your Project

Ball of business documents

To get stakeholders or management to approve your project, you will need to build a solid business case. Here are the basic steps for creating a business case.

Rolling Wave Planning

Blue rolling wave

What is rolling wave planning and how does it affect the critical chain? This article by John Goodpasture provides a detailed explanation.

What is PRINCE2?

PRINCE2 logo

PRINCE2 is one of the most widely used project management methodologies available. If you're looking to run successful projects, then PRINCE2 is an excellent choice.

Undertaking a Successful Project Audit

Audit checklist clipboard with checkboxes marked for related concepts

A project audit provides an opportunity to uncover issues, concerns and challenges encountered during the project lifecycle.

PROJECT SMART is the project management resource that helps managers at all levels improve their performance. We provide an important knowledge base for those involved in managing projects of all kinds. With weekly exclusive updates, we keep you in touch with the latest project management thinking.

WE ARE CONNECTED ~ Follow us on social media to get regular updates and opinion on what's happening in the world of project management.

Latest Comments

Allana commented on…
12 Tips for Being a Good Manager
- Tue 5 January 8:30pm

George Bockius commented on…
Better Coaching Using the GROW Model
- Thu 24 December 3:55pm

Al commented on…
Better Coaching Using the GROW Model
- Tue 22 December 10:07pm

Latest tweets

General Project Management • IT project management phrases - 10 terms you need to know about 1 day ago

General Project Management • An Optimist's View Going into 2021 about 5 days ago

An Optimist's View Going Into 2021 by Simon Sinek An inspiring read to help you start 2021… about 9 days ago